Toilets

The Product:

Toilets (also known as water closets) include tank-type toilets that are either gravity or pressure assist and either single- or dual-flush. 

The Standard:

Congress established national toilet standards as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and they took effect in 1994. Congress instructed DOE to update the standards when the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) amended their standards. In December 2010, with no ASME revisions on the books, DOE officially waived federal preemption of the 1.6 gallon-per-flush (gpf) national toilet standard. This waiver of federal preemption allows states to set standards provided they are more stringent than the national standard.

California, Colorado, Georgia, and Texas adopted toilet efficiency standards that require products to use no more than 1.28 gpf. Products meeting the 1.28 gpf level currently meet the qualifications for the EPA WaterSense program (similar to ENERGY STAR but focused on helping consumers identify water-efficient products).

KEY FACTS:

According to EPA, toilets are one of the primary users of water in the home, accounting for 30% of an average home's indoor water usage. In the U.S., there are an average of 1.9 toilets per home.

Projected Savings

Toilets
Savings through what year?:
Energy saved (quads):
CO2 savings (million metric tons):
Net present value savings ($billion) 3% discount rate:
Net present value savings ($billion) 7% discount rate:

Timeline

Federal Date States
2016 CO Standard Effective
2016 CA Standard Effective
2015 CA Standard Adopted
2014 CO Standard Adopted
2014 CA Standard Effective
2014 TX Standard Effective
2012 GA Standard Effective
2010 GA Standard Adopted
2009 TX Standard Adopted
2007 CA Standard Adopted
1st Federal Standard Effective 1994
EPACT Initial Federal Legislation Enacted 1992
1st Federal Standard Adopted (Congress) 1992

Timeline reflects state standards from 2001 to present; federal standards from inception to present.