Air cleaners


Air cleaners are portable, electric appliances that remove fine particles, such as dust, smoke, and pollen, from indoor air.


DOE finalized the first national standards for air cleaners in 2023, based on a consensus agreement between manufacturers and efficiency advocates. The direct final rule established a tiered compliance regime, with compliance with Tier 1 of the standards required starting December 31, 2023, and compliance with the more stringent Tier 2 required starting December 31, 2025. The Tier 1 standard levels reflect the efficiency levels that were adopted by the District of Columbia, Maryland, Nevada, New Jersey, and New York. The Tier 2 standards reflect the efficiency levels that were adopted by Washington. The new federal standards preempt the state-level efficiency standards.

*The energy efficiency metric, integrated energy factor (IEF), is PM2.5 (particulate matter) clean air delivery rate per watt (CADR/W). CADR is measured in cubic feet per minute (CFM).


As of 2020, there were about 7 million annual shipments of air purifiers in the US. Air purifiers that meet the Tier 1 (2023) standards reduce energy use by 9-40%, depending on the product category, relative to the least efficient products on the market at the time the standards were established. Air purifiers that meet the Tier 2 (2025) standards save an additional 9-31% relative to Tier 1.

The most common type of air purifiers clean the air using filters and fans.


Federal Date States
Next Review Due Initial Federal Legislation Enacted 2029
2024 MD Standard Effective
2024 WA Standard Effective
2023 NV Standard Effective
1st Federal Standard Adopted (Congress) 2023
2022 MD Standard Adopted
2022 WA Standard Adopted
2022 DC Standard Effective
2022 NJ Standard Effective
2021 NV Standard Adopted
2021 NJ Standard Adopted
2020 DC Standard Adopted

Timeline reflects state standards from 2001 to present; federal standards from inception to present.