Portable Electric Spas


Portable electric spas (PESs) are free-standing spas that are electrically heated. PESs include conventional high-temperature “hot tubs”, exercise or swim spas, and inflatable spas.


There are currently no federal standards for PESs. In 2022, following a final determination of PESs as a covered consumer product, DOE initiated a standards rulemaking. 

California adopted the first state standards for PESs in 2004, and an additional 13 states have adopted state-level standards. The state standards for PESs set maximum standby power limits.

*Standby power refers to the energy consumed to maintain the temperature set point and to circulate and filter the water when the spa is not being used. 


As of 2020, about five million US households had spas. Typical PESs waste a significant amount of energy through heat loss when the spa is not being used. A typical 334-gallon spa just meeting the most recent state standards uses more than 200 W of standby power, or about 1,900 kWh per year. For comparison, an average new refrigerator uses about 500 kWh per year.


Federal Date States
2024 MD Standard Effective
2024 WA Standard Effective
2023 NV Standard Effective
2023 ME Standard Effective
2023 RI Standard Effective
2022 MD Standard Adopted
2022 WA Standard Adopted
2022 DC Standard Effective
2022 MA Standard Effective
2022 OR Standard Effective
2022 NJ Standard Effective
2021 ME Standard Adopted
2021 RI Standard Adopted
2021 OR Standard Adopted
2021 NV Standard Adopted
2021 MA Standard Adopted
2021 NJ Standard Adopted
2021 CO Standard Effective
2020 DC Standard Adopted
2020 VT Standard Effective
2020 CA Standard Effective
2019 CA Standard Adopted
2019 CO Standard Adopted
2019 CA Standard Effective
2018 VT Standard Adopted
2018 CA Standard Adopted
2012 AZ Standard Effective
2010 WA Standard Effective
2009 OR Standard Effective
2009 AZ Standard Adopted
2009 WA Standard Adopted
2009 CT Standard Effective
2007 OR Standard Adopted
2007 CT Standard Adopted
2006 CA Standard Effective
2004 CA Standard Adopted

Timeline reflects state standards from 2001 to present; federal standards from inception to present.