Televisions include products designed to receive and display audio-visual content from terrestrial, cable, satellite, Internet Protocol TV (IPTV), or other sources. TVs typically consist of a tuner or receiver and a display encased in a single enclosure. Traditional cathode-ray tubes (CRT) are, for the most part, no longer manufactured, having been replaced by flat panel technologies such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and plasma products.
In October 2013, DOE issued a final test procedure rule, replacing the obsolete TV test method (for analog televisions) which was repealed in 2009. The California Energy Commission (CEC) adopted new television standards in November 2009. The standards established the first-ever active mode power usage limits with a two-phase implementation. Tier 1 became effective on January 1, 2011 and Tier 2 became effective on January 1, 2013. Tier 1 requires a maximum of 1 W standby power, and active mode power less than or equal to 0.2 x (screen area) + 32 for televisions with a screen size smaller than 1,400 inches (58 inch diagonal). Tier 2 requires active mode power less than or equal to 0.12 x Screen Area + 25. In addition, the CEC standards require that TVs provide a minimum level of brightness in the “home” or default mode in which energy use is measured to prevent gaming of the standard. (If the home mode is too dim, consumers will switch to other modes that would erode energy savings.) The standards also require a minimum power factor of 0.9. Connecticut adopted standards for televisions in 2011 and Oregon in 2013.
According to EPA’s ENERGY STAR, there are more than 275 million TV’s in the US, accounting for about 4% of all households’ electricity use. Natural Resources Defense Council reports that TV’s and peripherals (such as digital video recorders, cable boxes, satellite, and video game consoles) are estimated to represent 10% of residential electricity use. Significant technological advancements have reduced the energy consumption of flat panel TVs, including plasma and LCD products, two of the most popular types available.