Beverage Vending Machines


Refrigerated beverage vending machines include machines that have transparent, glass fronts and machines that have a closed, or opaque front. Some vending machines are “combination” machines, where the machine includes both a refrigerated section to cool and hold beverages and a non-refrigerated section to hold snack items, for example.


The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005 directed DOE to establish the first-ever national standards for refrigerated vending machines.  DOE published a final rule in 2009, and the standards took effect in 2012. The standards are based on the measured daily energy consumption (kWh/day) and vary based on the machine’s volume. 

In 2016, DOE finalized updated standards for refrigerated beverage vending machines that cut energy use by 5-55%. The standards took effect in 2019.


The efficiency of refrigerated beverage vending machines can be improved by employing technologies such as higher-efficiency compressors and fan motors and improved heat exchangers and insulation. In addition, the new standards credit energy-saving control strategies, including lighting controls and refrigeration system controls. Lighting controls automatically dim or turn off the lights illuminating the beverages and any signage during periods when a building is closed or there is low customer traffic, while refrigeration system controls allow the temperature of the beverages in the machine to rise a few degrees during periods of extended inactivity.

Savings through what year?: 2048
Energy saved (quads): .122
CO2 savings (million metric tons): 7
Net present value savings ($billion) 3% discount rate: $.51
Net present value savings ($billion) 7% discount rate: $.21


Federal Date States
Potential Effective Date of Updated Standard 2027
Updated DOE Standard Due 2024
2nd Federal Standard Effective 2019
Potential Effective Date of Updated Standard 2019
2nd Federal Standard Adopted (DOE) 2016
Updated DOE Standard Due 2016
Test Procedure - Last Revised - Active Mode 2015
1st Federal Standard Effective 2012
1st Federal Standard Adopted (DOE) 2009
2006 CA Standard Effective
EPACT Initial Federal Legislation Enacted 2005
2004 CA Standard Adopted

Timeline reflects state standards from 2001 to present; federal standards from inception to present.