A showerhead is a plumbing fixture that directs water onto a bather.


The current national standards for showerheads took effect in 1994 and set a maximum flow rate of 2.5 gpm (gallons per minute). In December 2010, DOE officially waived federal preemption of the national showerhead standards. This waiver of federal preemption allows states to set standards provided they are more stringent than the national standard.

In 2014, Colorado adopted standards for showerheads that set a maximum flow rate of 2.0 gpm. In 2015, the California Energy Commission (CEC) established a two-tiered standard with the first tier setting a maximum flow rate of 2.0 gpm and the second tier strengthening the standard to 1.8 gpm. As of 2024, 14 states in total had adopted showerhead standards that are more stringent than the national standard.


According to the EPA, showering accounts for about 17% of indoor residential water use. Showerheads that use no more than 2.0 gpm can earn the WaterSense label. WaterSense is an EPA partnership program (similar to ENERGY STAR) which identifies products that save water and energy, save money, and meet a minimum threshold of performance. 


Federal Date States
2024 MD Standard Effective
2023 ME Standard Effective
2023 RI Standard Effective
2022 MD Standard Adopted
2022 DC Standard Effective
2022 NY Standard Effective
2022 MA Standard Effective
2022 OR Standard Effective
2022 NJ Standard Effective
2021 ME Standard Adopted
2021 RI Standard Adopted
2021 OR Standard Adopted
2021 MA Standard Adopted
2021 NJ Standard Adopted
2021 WA Standard Effective
2021 HI Standard Effective
2020 DC Standard Adopted
2020 VT Standard Effective
2020 NV Standard Effective
2019 NY Standard Adopted
2019 NV Standard Adopted
2019 WA Standard Adopted
2019 HI Standard Adopted
2018 VT Standard Adopted
2016 CO Standard Effective
2016 CA Standard Effective
2015 CA Standard Adopted
2014 CO Standard Adopted
1st Federal Standard Effective 1994
EPACT Initial Federal Legislation Enacted 1992
1st Federal Standard Adopted (Congress) 1992

Timeline reflects state standards from 2001 to present; federal standards from inception to present.